Training Needs

Training Needs Assessment of the farmers and rural youths in Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya was conducted by the Krishi Vigyan Kendra (K.V.K.), Jaintia Hills in collaboration with the State Department of Agriculture, Meghalaya.

Four villages representing the different Agro –Ecological Situations under the five Blocks in the district were identified and based on production potential of the different farming systems were drawn up for inclusion in the present study. On consultation with the extension functionaries of the state agricultural departments, local leaders etc. a list of farmers representing different categories were prepared for each village. From the individual list of farmers from selected village, five farmer respondents were randomly selected which made twenty farmers for the district.

Data collection from randomly selected respondents was made using retested ‘Structured Schedule’ through personal interview method. For this purpose, an interview schedule was constructed for data collection from respondents in the light of the objectives of the study. The selected respondents were personally interviewed and their responses were recorded in the schedule. Utmost care was taken to make the respondents understand about the objectives of the study and clarified their doubts.

A list of 11 major components/thematic areas was prepared Viz., Crop production, Plant protection, Soil Health and fertility management, Afro-forestry, Horticulture, Animal Husbandry, Fisheries, On farm production of Inputs, Home Science/Women empowerment, Agri engineering, Capacity Building and Group Dynamics and Vocational Training for Rural Youth. Under each major component, specific and relevant training needs items were collected through review of literature, discussion with state extension functionaries, progressing farmers etc and incorporated in the interview schedule based on. The schedules were administered to the indented respondents for data collection. In this regard, the farmers were requested to give a tick (√) in one of the three response categories (Viz. Very important, Important and Not Important) provided against the identified specific items under each major component based on their perceived needs for providing training to them for further improvement in their farming system. The farmer’s responses were collected in 3- point continuum scale such as Very Important (VI), Important (I) and Not Important (NI) by assigning scores 3,2 and 1 respectively. The results were calculated as weighted score for each of the thrust area identified for the training:-

Weighted Score (W.S.)= (Number of VI x 3)+( Number of Ix2)+(Number of Nix1)
Total Number of VI+I+NI
Weighted Scores in the range of 2-3 were ranked within each discipline and the first five rankings were identified as the training needs of the farmers of the district.

Table 1: Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Crop Production
Thematic area Jaintia Hills District, Meghalaya(n=20)
Crop Production VI I NI WS Rank
Weed Management
Resource Conservation Technologies 6 12 2 2.2 3
Cropping Systems 7 10 3 2.2 3
Crop Diversification 12 4 4 2.4 1
Integrated Farming 8 11 1 2.35 2
Water Management 6 9 5 2.05 6
Seed Production 6 5 9 1.8 7
Nursery Management 8 6 6 2.1 4
Integrated Crop Management 7 12 1 2.3 2
Fodder Production 4 4 12 1.6 8
Production of Organic Inputs 7 9 4 2.15 4
Table: 2 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Plant Protection
Thematic area Jaintia Hills District, Meghalaya(n=20)
Plant Protection VI I NI WS Rank
Integrated Pest Management 18 2 0 2.9 1
Integrated Disease Management 17 3 0 2.85 2
Bio-control of pest and diseases 7 13 0 2.35 3
Production of biocontrol agents and biopesticides 8 11 1 2.35 3
Table: 3 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Soil Health and Fertility Management
Thematic area Jaintia Hills District, Meghalaya(n=20)
Soil Health and Fertility Management VI I NI WS Rank
Soil Fertility Management 12 8 0 2.6 1
Soil and Water Conservation 11 7 2 2.45 2
Integrated Nutrient Management 9 10 1 2.4 2
Production and use of organic inputs 5 12 3 2.1 3
Management of problematic soils 5 11 4 2.05 4
Micro nutrient deficiency in crops 5 9 6 1.95 6
Nutrient use efficiency 5 8 7 1.9 5
Soil and water testing 5 9 6 1.95 6
Table: 4 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Horticulture
Thematic area Jaintia Hills District, Meghalaya(n=20)
Horticulture VI I NI WS Rank
Vegetables Crops          
Production of Low Volume and High Value Crops 6 8 6 2 4
Off-season vegetables 11 8 1 2.5 1
Nursery Raising 10 10 0 2.5 1
Exotic vegetables like Broccoli 6 12 2 2.2 3
Export potential vegetables 6 5 9 1.85 5
Grading and standardization 2 9 9 1.65 6
Protective cultivation(Ex. Green House, shade net) 10 9 1 2.45 2
Fruits          
Training and Pruning 5 5 10 1.75 5
Layout and management of orchards 6 6 8 1.9 2
Cultivation of fruits 7 3 10 1.85 4
Management of young plants/orchards 4 8 8 1.8 3
Rejuvenation of old orchards 8 7 5 2.15 1
Export potential fruits 3 7 10 1.65 6
Micro irrigation systems of orchards 4 5 11 1.65 6
Plant Propagation Techniques 5 3 12 1.65 6
Ornamental Plants          
Nursery management 5 8 7 1.9 1
Management of potted plants 2 7 11 1.55 3
Export potential of Ornamental Plants 5 3 12 1.65 2
Propagation Techniques of Ornamental Plants 4 2 14 1.5 3
Plantation Crops          
Production and Management Technology 5 4 11 1.7 1
Processing and Value Addition 4 4 12 1.6 2
Tuber Crops          
Production and Management Technology 4 10 6 1.9 1
Processing and Value Addition 4 9 7 1.85 2
Spices          
Production and Management Technology 7 9 4 2.15 1
Processing and Value Addition 5 10 5 2 2
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants          
Nursery Management 2 1 17 1.25 2
Production and Management Technology 3 1 16 1.35 1
Post Harvest Technology and Value Addition 2 1 17 1.25 2
Table: 5 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Livestock Production and Management
Thematic area Jaintia Hills District, Meghalaya(n=20)
Livestock production and management VI I NI WS Rank
Dairy Management 7 6 7 2 4
Poultry Management 7 8 5 2.1 2
Piggery Management 9 3 8 2.05 3
Rabbit Management 3 4 13 1.5 5
Disease Management 16 4 0 2.8 1
Feed Management 7 6 7 2 4
Production of quality animal products 1 5 14 1.35 6
Table: 6 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Home Science/Women Empowerment
Thematic area Jaintia Hills District, Meghalaya(n=20)
Home Science/Women Empowerment VI I NI WS Rank
Household food security by kitchen gardening and nutrition 5 11 4 2.05   1
Gardening 2 5 13 1.45 6
Design and development of low/minimum cost diet 2 10 8 1.7 4
Designing and development for nutrient efficiency diet 2 8 10 1.6   5
Minimization of nutrient loss in processing 2 11 7 1.75 3
Gender mainstreaming through SHGs 2 11 7 1.75 3
Storage loss minimization techniques 3 8 9 1.7 4
Value Addition 2 8 10 1.6 5
Location specific drudgery reduction technologies 2 4 14 1.4 8
Income generation activities for empowerment of rural women 5 5 10 1.75   4
Rural Crafts 2 6 12 1.5 7
Women and Child Care 5 8 7 1.9 2
Table: 7 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Agril. Engineering
Thematic area Jaintia Hills District, Meghalaya(n=20)
Agril. Engineering VI I NI WS Rank
Installation and maintenance of micro irrigation systems 8 11 1 2.35   1
Use of plastics in farming practices 3 7 10 1.65 4
Production of small tools and implements 5 7 8 1.85 2
Repair and maintenance of farm machinery and implements 3 10 7 1.8   3
Small scale processing and value addition 2 13 5 1.85 2
Post Harvest Technology 3 10 7 1.8 3
Table: 8 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Fisheries.
Thematic area Jaintia Hills District, Meghalaya(n=20)
Fisheries VI I NI WS Rank
Integrated Fish Farming 6 10 4 2.1 1
Crab breeding and hatchery management 0 2 18 1.1 6
Crab fry and fingerling rearing 1 1 18 1.15 5
Composite Fish Culture 1 4 15 1.3 3
Hatchery management and culture of fresh water prawn 0 2 18 1.1   6
Breeding and culture of ornamental fishes 4 3 13 1.55 2
Portable plastic crap hatchery 1 1 18 1.15 5
Pen culture of fish and prawn 0 1 19 1.05 7
Shrimp farming 1 1 18 1.15 5
Edible oyster farming 0 2 18 1.1 6
Pearl culture 0 1 19 1.05 7
Fish processing and value addition 1 3 16 1.25 4
Table: 9 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Production of inputs at site
Thematic area Jaintia Hills District, Meghalaya(n=20)
Production of inputs at site VI I NI WS Rank
Seed production 5 4 11 1.7 6
Planting material production 4 11 5 1.95 5
Bio-agents production 3 10 7 1.8 7
Bio-pesticides production 8 11 1 2.35 2
Bio-fertilizer production 11 8 1 2.5 1
Vermi-compost production 5 15 0 2.25 3
Organic manures production 4 12 4 2 4
Production of fry and fingerlings 2 2 16 1.3 11
Production of bee-colonies and wax sheets 1 3 16 1.25 12
Small tools and implements 2 8 10 1.6 8
Production of livestock feed and fodder 3 2 15 1.4 10
Production of fish feed 2 5 13 1.45 9
Table: 10 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Agro-forestry
Thematic area Jaintia Hills District, Meghalaya(n=20)
Agro-forestry VI I NI WS Rank
Production technologies 2 2 16 1.3 2
Nursery management 3 1 16 1.35 1
Integrated Farming Systems 3 1 16 1.35 1
Other (Please specify)          
Table: 11 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Capacity building and group dynamics
Thematic area Jaintia Hills District, Meghalaya(n=20)
Capacity building and group dynamics VI I NI WS Rank
Leadership development 10 7 3 2.35 1
Group dynamics 2 4 14 1.4 4
Formation and management of SHGs 9 9 2 2.35 1
Mobilization of social capital 1 7 12 1.45 3
Enterpreneurial development of farmers/youth 7 8 5 2.1 2
W.T.O. and I.R.P. issues 2 3 15 1.35 5
Table: 12 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya for Rural Youth
Thematic area Jaintia Hills District, Meghalaya(n=20)
Rural Youth VI I NI WS Rank
Mushroom Production 6 10 4 2.1 3
Bee-keeping 2 8 10 1.6 8
Integrated Farming 8 11 1 2.35 2
Production of organic inputs 5 11 4 2.05 3
Planting material production 3 12 5 1.9 4
Vermiculture 10 9 1 2.45 1
Sericulture 3 11 6 1.85 5
Protected cultivation of vegetables crops 6 10 4 2.1 3
Commercial fruit production 5 2 13 1.6 8
Repair and maintenance of farm machinery and implements 4 11 5 1.95   4
Nursery management of horticultural crops 3 13 4 1.95 3
Training and pruning of orchards 2 9 9 1.65 7
Value addition 4 11 5 1.95 4
Production of quality animal products 1 5 14 1.35 10
Dairying 4 3 13 1.55 9
Sheep and goat rearing 7 5 12 1.79 6
Quail farming 1 5 14 1.35 10
Piggery 3 12 5 1.9 4

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